La machine univers : Création, cognition et culture informatique

June 28, 2012 § Leave a comment

LEVY, Pierre : La machine univers : Création, cognition et culture informatique. Paris : La découverte, 1987.



May 31, 2012 § Leave a comment

Embodied cognition이나 extended cognition이라는 개념이 흥미로운 것은, body-mind dualism이나 person-environment dualism에서 벗어나거나 벗어날 수 있는 단초라는 것이다. 동양에서 보는 사람과 우주와의 관계와 훨씬 비슷해진다. 비록 이 개념들의 끝이 온몸에 chip과 기계덩어리를 장착한 인간과 무선통신망으로 이루어진 환경이 될 수도 있지만… 탯줄을 끊고 나왔을 때 그대로의 사람도 있는 그대로의 자연과 충분히 교감할 수 있는데…氣…그럼 理는 뭐지? 동양철학도 이분법에 바탕을 뒀었나?

Situated, embodied realism

May 30, 2012 § Leave a comment

A. Chemero , “Situated, embodied realism”, in Jose Burgos and Emilio Ribes (eds.), Knowledge, Cognition and Behavior, 177-204, 2007.

Embodied cognition : A field guide

May 30, 2012 § Leave a comment

Anderson, M. (2003) Embodied cognition: A field guide. Artificial Intelligence 149: 91-130.

Defending extented cognition

May 30, 2012 § Leave a comment

A. Chemero and M. Silberstein, “Defending Extended Cognition”, In Love, McRae, and Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 129-134, 2008.

Radical embodied cognition vs. «classical» embodied neuroscience

May 28, 2012 § Leave a comment

REBOUL, Anne. ” Radical embodied cognition vs. “classical” embodied neuroscience”,  in Yu, Z. (ed.) Cognition and Embodiment, Shanghai : Shanghai University Press, 2012.


1. Introduction : the birth and development of cognitive science

Cognitive sciences were born as a revolution against behaviorism in the 50s. (Behaviorism : stmulus-response unit)

Early cognitive science (otherwise known as “classical” cognitive science) was thus strongly linked to so-called GOFAI(Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence).

The next major step was due to the technological advances which led to the rapid development of sophisticated tools for brain imagery. –> reoriented the field toward cognitive neuroscience.

  • Cognitive neuroscience(major characteristics : Representationalism)
  1. Classical cognitive science is limited to the brain.
  2. Embodied cognition goes beyond the brain to encompass the whole body.
  3. Extended cognition goes beyond the body to features of the social or physical environment.

This next major step was taken by Radical Embodied Cognitive Science, the eliminativist program defended by Chemero(2009).


2. The radical embodied cognition debate


3. An empirical approch

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Collective hunting in Ta{i chimpanzees

3.3. Fiction and thought experiments

embodied cognition

May 28, 2012 § Leave a comment

In philosophy, the embodied mind thesis holds that the nature of the human mind is largely determined by the form of the human body. Philosophers, psychologists, cognitive scientists and artificial intelligence researchers who study embodied cognition and the embodied mind argue that all aspects of cognition are shaped by aspects of the body. The aspects of cognition include high level mental constructs (such as concepts and categories) and human performance on various cognitive tasks (such as reasoning or judgement). The aspects of the body include the motor system, the perceptual system, the body’s interactions with the environment (situatedness) and the ontological assumptions about the world that are built into the body and the brain. The embodied mind thesis is opposed to other theories of cognition such as cognitivism, computationalism and Cartesian dualism. The idea has roots in Kant and 20th century continental philosophy (such as Merleau-Ponty). The modern version depends on insights drawn from recent research in psychology, linguistics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, robotics and neurobiology. Embodied cognition is a topic of research in social and cognitive psychology, covering issues such as social interaction and decision-making. Embodied cognition reflects the argument that the motor system influences our cognition, just as the mind influences bodily actions. For example, when participants hold a pencil in their teeth engaging the muscles of a smile, they comprehend pleasant sentences faster than unpleasant ones. And it works in reverse: holding a pencil in their teeth to engage the muscles of a frown increases the time it takes to comprehend pleasant sentences. George Lakoff (a cognitive scientist and linguist) and his collaborators (including Mark Johnson, Mark Turner, and Rafael E. Núñez) have written a series of books promoting and expanding the thesis based on discoveries in cognitive science, such as conceptual metaphor and image schema. Robotics researchers such as Rodney Brooks, Hans Moravec and Rolf Pfeifer have argued that true artificial intelligence can only be achieved by machines that have sensory and motor skills and are connected to the world through a body. The insights of these robotics researchers have in turn inspired philosophers like Andy Clark and Horst Hendriks-Jansen. Neuroscientists Gerald Edelman, António Damásio and others have outlined the connection between the body, individual structures in the brain and aspects of the mind such as consciousness, emotion, self-awareness and will. Biology has also inspired Gregory Bateson, Humberto Maturana, Francisco Varela, Eleanor Rosch and Evan Thompson to develop a closely related version of the idea, which they call enactivism. The motor theory of speech perception proposed by Alvin Liberman and colleagues at the Haskins Laboratories argues that the identification of words is embodied in perception of the bodily movements by which spoken words are made.

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